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Using just 'species' (for the sake of simplicity and consistency), the author's judgments can be summarized as follows:

  • (39a) the species of the tiger = (marginally) OK
  • (39b) the species of tigers = (marginally) OK
  • (39c) the species Panthera Tigris = OK
  • (40a-i) the species of tiger = ungrammatical
  • (40a-ii) the species of tiger we just talked about = OK
  • (40b-i) a species of tiger = OK
  • (40b-ii) that species of tiger = OK

As for why, all three forms in (39) mean Panthera tigris as a whole. In contrast, all instances of the words 'species of tiger' in (40) refer not Panthera tigris as a whole but rather more specific sub-species (e.g. Panthera tigris corbetti or Panthera tigris jacksoni).

In glancing down at the first sentence of section 3, it looks like the authors are going to go into more detail about their theoretical explanation for this pattern.

I hope this helps!