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The simplest answer is: because if they were written as "CH" and "SH" respectively, native speakers of English would think they are the same as English "ch" in "child" and "sh" in "shoe" (as you obviously do) –and they are not. The system of Romanization you are referring to is known as Pinyin (or Hanyu Pinyin–I leave out the tone marks). In Pinyin, the sound represented as X is [ɕ] –an alveolo-palatal fricative, which could be described as intermediate between English "sh" in "shoe" and [hj] in "huge" (the narrowing against the roof of the mouth is further back than for "sh" in "shoe"). The same can be said about Q – it is an affricate a bit like English "ch", but it is further back in the mouth than English "ch" in "child", and it is additionally apirated (see below). Pinyin has been devised with special attention to English speaking habits, e.g. many foreign speakers do not realize that B (as in Beijing) and P do not really stand for English "b" and "p", but "B" stands for "unaspirated p", as in "spike", and "P" for "aspirated p" as in "pike". The same can be said about "D" ("t" in "stake") and "T" ("t" in "take") as well as "G" ("k" in "skate") and "K" ("k" in "kite").