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There are constructs of interactionism in Sociology and in Philosophy of Mind, but considering that you're posting on this site I'm assuming you're curious about the theory of language acquisition (sometimes also called Social Interaction Theory). Quoting from the Wikipedia page:

Social interactionist theory is an explanation of language development emphasizing the role of social interaction between the developing child and linguistically knowledgeable adults. It is based largely on the socio-cultural theories of Soviet psychologist, Lev Vygotsky.

Perhaps the best place to start would be to place it in a broader context. See LanguageDevelopment.tripod.com for a description of three different theoretical approaches to language acquisition, including Interactionist Theory.

For further reading online, see this page page on the theory for a Language Acquisition & Development course at Colgate University. If you are interested in ESL, there is also an article on the theory at BrightHubEducation.com's blog ESL Teaching Tips.

Hopefully that's enough to get you started!