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According to The Oxford Guide to Etymology (p. 272), Middle English atten is from at (Old English æt) + dative masculine/neuter the (OE THæm) and atter is from at + dative feminine the (OE THære). Both later got reduced to atte. The source goes on to give the example of atten ashe to Nash.

In Old English, æsc (ash tree) was masculine (Old English Online: Master Glossary), so the misdivision atten [ash] to English surname Nash makes sense grammatically. As for feminine atter [ash] to English surname Rash, perhaps the gender varied in different areas. Note that the Modern German cognate of ash (tree) is feminine Esche. Also, depending on the age of the surname, it could be atte [ash] pronounced as atter [ash] (later to Rash) in the way that modern British English often inserts -r between vowels at word boundaries (idear is).

Reference: Durkin, Philip, The Oxford Guide to Etymology (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009).