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L2 speech model with acoustic measurements

Dear all,

I am working on L2 speech production and would like to ask if there are any L2 speech production models.

From my survey, most models on L2 speech, such as Speech Learning Model (Flege, 1995) and Perceptual Assimilation Model (Best, 1995) focus mainly on perception although some shows link to production. However, to make a prediction, they still base their prediction of production via perception. If the answer is no, I think there is a need to create some production model for L2 learning.

Your reply will definitely be useful for my work.

Best wishes,


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